THEORIES OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PDF



Theories Of Human Resource Management Pdf

EVOLUTION OF HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT THEORIES. Theories of Compensation. In order to understand which components of remuneration are more effective, we need to understand the conceptual framework or theories or employee remuneration. Three such theories are reinforcement and expectancy theories, equity theory and agency theory. Four Basic Functions of Human Resource Management 235, Global Journal of Human Resource Management Vol.4, No.1, pp.95-110, February 2016 HUMAN RESOURCE THEORY: FROM HAWTHORNE EXPERIMENTS OF MAYO TO GROUPTHINK OF JANIS methodology, it builds various management theories, management methods and management techniques by management practices. The relationship of them shows as the following figure:.

Electronic human resource management Enhancing or

Smart Learning Way INDUCTION HUMAN RESOURCE. 06/10/2013 · There are several theories which emphasize on the importance of training and development in the organization and provides different alternative methods for training and development. A discussion of four major theories of training and development is given in this article., 25/07/2017 · Orientation: This article provides an investigation into the current level of development of the body of knowledge related to electronic human resource management (e-HRM) by means of a qualitative content analysis.Several aspects of e-HRM, namely definitions of e-HRM, the theoretical perspectives around e-HRM, the role of e-HRM, the various types of e-HRM and the requirements for ….

13/04/2018 · Human resources managers perform key functions to help sustain business operations. They outline policies that are imperative in facilitating employer-employee relations. Their main task is to successfully motivate employees to meet a company’s financial … management theories, the core of the paper, will be discussed at length; the . 2 human resource management, and organizational leadership. First and foremost, management is about solving problems that keep emerging all the time in the course of an organization struggling to achieve its goals and . 3

Human Resource Management Theory - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives. Theory is an important part of human resource management. Human resources professionals must understand the … Global Journal of Human Resource Management Vol.4, No.1, pp.95-110, February 2016 HUMAN RESOURCE THEORY: FROM HAWTHORNE EXPERIMENTS OF MAYO TO GROUPTHINK OF JANIS methodology, it builds various management theories, management methods and management techniques by management practices. The relationship of them shows as the following figure:

human resource management. human resource management, in its simplest terms, is defined as the effective management of the formal relationship between the employer and employees. A human resource manager coordinates all the activities involved in acquiring, developing, maintaining and terminating employees from a business’s human resources. 25/07/2017 · Orientation: This article provides an investigation into the current level of development of the body of knowledge related to electronic human resource management (e-HRM) by means of a qualitative content analysis.Several aspects of e-HRM, namely definitions of e-HRM, the theoretical perspectives around e-HRM, the role of e-HRM, the various types of e-HRM and the requirements for …

Five Theories in Human Resource Management 1. Frederick Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory Another researcher to enter into the fray of human motivation was Frederick Herzberg. Originally trained as a clinical psychologist, over the course of Herzberg’s career he switched focused and became one of the first researchers in the growing Human Resource Management Theory - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives. Theory is an important part of human resource management. Human resources professionals must understand the …

THEORY PRESENTATION IN HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Richard Klimoski The Ohio State University There are a variety of ways to develop and present conceptual material. However, this article reviews approaches that have been found to be partic- ularly useful by many contributors to theory in Human Resource Manage- ment. Motivation theories seek to explain why employees are motivated by and satisfied with one type of work than another. It is essential that mangers have a basic understanding of work motivation because highly motivated employees are more likely to produce a superior quality product or service than employee who lack motivation.. At one time, employees were considered just another input into the

EVOLUTION OF HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT THEORIES AND ORGANIZATIONAL SUCCESS Maryam TareshSaif Al Marri Doctor of Philosophy (Human Resource Management) Student, College of Business Management (SBM), Universiti Utara Malaysia Abdul Halim Abdul Majid School of Business Management (SBM), College of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia Theories of Compensation. In order to understand which components of remuneration are more effective, we need to understand the conceptual framework or theories or employee remuneration. Three such theories are reinforcement and expectancy theories, equity theory and agency theory. Four Basic Functions of Human Resource Management 235

What is strategic human resource management? 5 Meta

theories of human resource management pdf

Theoretical Perspectives for Strategic Human Resource. 01/06/1992 · Critics have argued that the field of human resource management (HRM) lacks a coherent theoreticalframework. This article attempts to further the theoretical development of SHRM through discussing six theoretical models (behavioral perspective, cybernetic models, agencyltransaction cost theory, resource-based view of the firm, power/resource dependence models, and institutional theory) …, Attribution theories in Human Resource Management research: a review and research agenda Article (PDF Available) in The International Journal of Human Resource Management · September 2017 with.

Theoretical Perspectives for Strategic Human Resource. Attribution theories in Human Resource Management research: a review and research agenda Article (PDF Available) in The International Journal of Human Resource Management · September 2017 with, Human Resource Management Theory - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives. Theory is an important part of human resource management. Human resources professionals must understand the ….

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theories of human resource management pdf

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Theory and Practice. 27/11/2011 · “Great Man” Theory: Great Man theories assume that the capacity for leadership is inherent- that great leaders are born not made.These theories often portray great leaders as heroic, mythic, and destined to rise to leadership when needed. The term “Great man” was used because, at the time, leadership was through of primarily as a male quality, especially on terms of military leadership. 27/08/2013 · Organizational theories also referred to as motivational theories. Organization Theories Project Human Resource Management iZenBridge Consultancy Pvt Ltd. ….

theories of human resource management pdf


EVOLUTION OF HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT THEORIES AND ORGANIZATIONAL SUCCESS Maryam TareshSaif Al Marri Doctor of Philosophy (Human Resource Management) Student, College of Business Management (SBM), Universiti Utara Malaysia Abdul Halim Abdul Majid School of Business Management (SBM), College of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia Human Resources Management In Government A South African Perspectives Of Theories, Politics And Proc.pdf - Free download Ebook, Handbook, Textbook, User Guide PDF …

Attribution theories in Human Resource Management research: a review and research agenda Article (PDF Available) in The International Journal of Human Resource Management · September 2017 with 13/04/2018 · Human resources managers perform key functions to help sustain business operations. They outline policies that are imperative in facilitating employer-employee relations. Their main task is to successfully motivate employees to meet a company’s financial …

EVOLUTION OF HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT THEORIES AND ORGANIZATIONAL SUCCESS Maryam TareshSaif Al Marri Doctor of Philosophy (Human Resource Management) Student, College of Business Management (SBM), Universiti Utara Malaysia Abdul Halim Abdul Majid School of Business Management (SBM), College of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia Theories of Compensation. In order to understand which components of remuneration are more effective, we need to understand the conceptual framework or theories or employee remuneration. Three such theories are reinforcement and expectancy theories, equity theory and agency theory. Four Basic Functions of Human Resource Management 235

01/06/1992 · Critics have argued that the field of human resource management (HRM) lacks a coherent theoreticalframework. This article attempts to further the theoretical development of SHRM through discussing six theoretical models (behavioral perspective, cybernetic models, agencyltransaction cost theory, resource-based view of the firm, power/resource dependence models, and institutional theory) … What is strategic human resource management? 5 Meta theories While the outline in Section 3 focuses on interpretations – that is, theories – of social, technological, economic and political change, there are other meta levels of ‘theory’ which, in a sense, sit above these interpretations of events.

human resource management. human resource management, in its simplest terms, is defined as the effective management of the formal relationship between the employer and employees. A human resource manager coordinates all the activities involved in acquiring, developing, maintaining and terminating employees from a business’s human resources. management theories, the core of the paper, will be discussed at length; the . 2 human resource management, and organizational leadership. First and foremost, management is about solving problems that keep emerging all the time in the course of an organization struggling to achieve its goals and . 3

Theory of Human Resource Development (HRD) This module covers the HRD function in organizations from a wide variety of perspectives. At the outset, after the introduction to the module in the previous article, it is time to look at some theoretical perspectives about the HRD function. 02/01/2015В В· Human Resource Management (HRM) is the function within an organization that focuses on recruitment of, management of, and providing direction for the people who work in the organization. Human Resource Management can also be performed by line managers.

Attribution theories in Human Resource Management research: a review and research agenda Article (PDF Available) in The International Journal of Human Resource Management · September 2017 with c) Stage three (mid-1970s–late 1990s): human resource management and strategic human resource management (SHRM) stage d) Stage four (Beyond 2000): SHRM into the future These stages largely reflect the development of Human Resource Management in the rest of …

THEORY PRESENTATION IN HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Richard Klimoski The Ohio State University There are a variety of ways to develop and present conceptual material. However, this article reviews approaches that have been found to be partic- ularly useful by many contributors to theory in Human Resource Manage- ment. Motivation theories seek to explain why employees are motivated by and satisfied with one type of work than another. It is essential that mangers have a basic understanding of work motivation because highly motivated employees are more likely to produce a superior quality product or service than employee who lack motivation.. At one time, employees were considered just another input into the

Evolution of Human Resource Management HRdictionary

theories of human resource management pdf

Smart Learning Way INDUCTION HUMAN RESOURCE. 27/08/2013 · Organizational theories also referred to as motivational theories. Organization Theories Project Human Resource Management iZenBridge Consultancy Pvt Ltd. …, Theories of Compensation. In order to understand which components of remuneration are more effective, we need to understand the conceptual framework or theories or employee remuneration. Three such theories are reinforcement and expectancy theories, equity theory and agency theory. Four Basic Functions of Human Resource Management 235.

Theoretical Perspectives for Strategic Human Resource

EVOLUTION OF HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT THEORIES. Theory of Human Resource Development (HRD) This module covers the HRD function in organizations from a wide variety of perspectives. At the outset, after the introduction to the module in the previous article, it is time to look at some theoretical perspectives about the HRD function., Theories of Compensation. In order to understand which components of remuneration are more effective, we need to understand the conceptual framework or theories or employee remuneration. Three such theories are reinforcement and expectancy theories, equity theory and agency theory. Four Basic Functions of Human Resource Management 235.

Global Journal of Human Resource Management Vol.4, No.1, pp.95-110, February 2016 HUMAN RESOURCE THEORY: FROM HAWTHORNE EXPERIMENTS OF MAYO TO GROUPTHINK OF JANIS methodology, it builds various management theories, management methods and management techniques by management practices. The relationship of them shows as the following figure: Global Journal of Human Resource Management Vol.4, No.1, pp.95-110, February 2016 HUMAN RESOURCE THEORY: FROM HAWTHORNE EXPERIMENTS OF MAYO TO GROUPTHINK OF JANIS methodology, it builds various management theories, management methods and management techniques by management practices. The relationship of them shows as the following figure:

Human Resources Management In Government A South African Perspectives Of Theories, Politics And Proc.pdf - Free download Ebook, Handbook, Textbook, User Guide PDF … 01/06/1992 · Critics have argued that the field of human resource management (HRM) lacks a coherent theoreticalframework. This article attempts to further the theoretical development of SHRM through discussing six theoretical models (behavioral perspective, cybernetic models, agencyltransaction cost theory, resource-based view of the firm, power/resource dependence models, and institutional theory) …

EVOLUTION OF HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT THEORIES AND ORGANIZATIONAL SUCCESS Maryam TareshSaif Al Marri Doctor of Philosophy (Human Resource Management) Student, College of Business Management (SBM), Universiti Utara Malaysia Abdul Halim Abdul Majid School of Business Management (SBM), College of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia 01/06/1992 · Critics have argued that the field of human resource management (HRM) lacks a coherent theoreticalframework. This article attempts to further the theoretical development of SHRM through discussing six theoretical models (behavioral perspective, cybernetic models, agencyltransaction cost theory, resource-based view of the firm, power/resource dependence models, and institutional theory) …

EVOLUTION OF HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT THEORIES AND ORGANIZATIONAL SUCCESS Maryam TareshSaif Al Marri Doctor of Philosophy (Human Resource Management) Student, College of Business Management (SBM), Universiti Utara Malaysia Abdul Halim Abdul Majid School of Business Management (SBM), College of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia c) Stage three (mid-1970s–late 1990s): human resource management and strategic human resource management (SHRM) stage d) Stage four (Beyond 2000): SHRM into the future These stages largely reflect the development of Human Resource Management in the rest of …

EVOLUTION OF HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT THEORIES AND ORGANIZATIONAL SUCCESS Maryam TareshSaif Al Marri Doctor of Philosophy (Human Resource Management) Student, College of Business Management (SBM), Universiti Utara Malaysia Abdul Halim Abdul Majid School of Business Management (SBM), College of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia Download: Theories Of Human Development.pdf. Of Rural Development Theories Of Economic Growth And Development Classic Theories Of Economic Growth And Development Human Resource Management In Government A South African Perspective On Theories Human Resources Management In Government A South African Perspectives Of Theories,

Global Journal of Human Resource Management Vol.4, No.1, pp.95-110, February 2016 HUMAN RESOURCE THEORY: FROM HAWTHORNE EXPERIMENTS OF MAYO TO GROUPTHINK OF JANIS methodology, it builds various management theories, management methods and management techniques by management practices. The relationship of them shows as the following figure: Human Resource Management ( Hrm ) Essay - Human resource management (HRM), according to Wyk, V (1989:9), is the creation of an environment where people strive to do their best, where opportunities are equally distributed, where initiatives are encouraged and the conditions for success are created.

Missing Variables in Theories of Strategic Human Resource Management: Time, Cause, and Individuals Abstract Much progress has been made with regard to theory building and application in the field of Strategic Human Resource Management (HRM) since Wright and McMahan’s (1992) critical review. While researchers have Human Resource Management Theory - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives. Theory is an important part of human resource management. Human resources professionals must understand the …

Global Journal of Human Resource Management Vol.4, No.1, pp.95-110, February 2016 HUMAN RESOURCE THEORY: FROM HAWTHORNE EXPERIMENTS OF MAYO TO GROUPTHINK OF JANIS methodology, it builds various management theories, management methods and management techniques by management practices. The relationship of them shows as the following figure: human resource management. human resource management, in its simplest terms, is defined as the effective management of the formal relationship between the employer and employees. A human resource manager coordinates all the activities involved in acquiring, developing, maintaining and terminating employees from a business’s human resources.

Human Resource Management ( Hrm ) Essay - Human resource management (HRM), according to Wyk, V (1989:9), is the creation of an environment where people strive to do their best, where opportunities are equally distributed, where initiatives are encouraged and the conditions for success are created. 27/11/2011 · “Great Man” Theory: Great Man theories assume that the capacity for leadership is inherent- that great leaders are born not made.These theories often portray great leaders as heroic, mythic, and destined to rise to leadership when needed. The term “Great man” was used because, at the time, leadership was through of primarily as a male quality, especially on terms of military leadership.

13/04/2018 · Human resources managers perform key functions to help sustain business operations. They outline policies that are imperative in facilitating employer-employee relations. Their main task is to successfully motivate employees to meet a company’s financial … What is strategic human resource management? 5 Meta theories While the outline in Section 3 focuses on interpretations – that is, theories – of social, technological, economic and political change, there are other meta levels of ‘theory’ which, in a sense, sit above these interpretations of events.

06/10/2013В В· There are several theories which emphasize on the importance of training and development in the organization and provides different alternative methods for training and development. A discussion of four major theories of training and development is given in this article. THEORY PRESENTATION IN HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Richard Klimoski The Ohio State University There are a variety of ways to develop and present conceptual material. However, this article reviews approaches that have been found to be partic- ularly useful by many contributors to theory in Human Resource Manage- ment.

Attribution theories in Human Resource Management research: a review and research agenda Article (PDF Available) in The International Journal of Human Resource Management В· September 2017 with Motivation theories seek to explain why employees are motivated by and satisfied with one type of work than another. It is essential that mangers have a basic understanding of work motivation because highly motivated employees are more likely to produce a superior quality product or service than employee who lack motivation.. At one time, employees were considered just another input into the

Attribution theories in Human Resource Management research: a review and research agenda Article (PDF Available) in The International Journal of Human Resource Management В· September 2017 with Theory of Human Resource Development (HRD) This module covers the HRD function in organizations from a wide variety of perspectives. At the outset, after the introduction to the module in the previous article, it is time to look at some theoretical perspectives about the HRD function.

Five Theories in Human Resource Management 1. Frederick Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory Another researcher to enter into the fray of human motivation was Frederick Herzberg. Originally trained as a clinical psychologist, over the course of Herzberg’s career he switched focused and became one of the first researchers in the growing Human Resource Management Theory - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives. Theory is an important part of human resource management. Human resources professionals must understand the …

Human Resource Management Theory Videos & Lessons. Theories of Compensation. In order to understand which components of remuneration are more effective, we need to understand the conceptual framework or theories or employee remuneration. Three such theories are reinforcement and expectancy theories, equity theory and agency theory. Four Basic Functions of Human Resource Management 235, 06/10/2013В В· There are several theories which emphasize on the importance of training and development in the organization and provides different alternative methods for training and development. A discussion of four major theories of training and development is given in this article..

Theoretical Perspectives for Strategic Human Resource

theories of human resource management pdf

Smart Learning Way INDUCTION HUMAN RESOURCE. Human Resources Management In Government A South African Perspectives Of Theories, Politics And Proc.pdf - Free download Ebook, Handbook, Textbook, User Guide PDF …, human resource management. human resource management, in its simplest terms, is defined as the effective management of the formal relationship between the employer and employees. A human resource manager coordinates all the activities involved in acquiring, developing, maintaining and terminating employees from a business’s human resources..

theories of human resource management pdf

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Theory and Practice

theories of human resource management pdf

Human Resource Management Theory Videos & Lessons. Theories of Compensation. In order to understand which components of remuneration are more effective, we need to understand the conceptual framework or theories or employee remuneration. Three such theories are reinforcement and expectancy theories, equity theory and agency theory. Four Basic Functions of Human Resource Management 235 and functional activities of human resource management. For some time there has been a tendency of textbooks on personnel management to be much more prescriptive and practical than analytical. Human Resource Management: Theory and Practice is intended as a rigorous, but readable, coverage of.

theories of human resource management pdf


27/08/2013 · Organizational theories also referred to as motivational theories. Organization Theories Project Human Resource Management iZenBridge Consultancy Pvt Ltd. … 27/08/2013 · Organizational theories also referred to as motivational theories. Organization Theories Project Human Resource Management iZenBridge Consultancy Pvt Ltd. …

management theories, the core of the paper, will be discussed at length; the . 2 human resource management, and organizational leadership. First and foremost, management is about solving problems that keep emerging all the time in the course of an organization struggling to achieve its goals and . 3 Human Resources Management In Government A South African Perspectives Of Theories, Politics And Proc.pdf - Free download Ebook, Handbook, Textbook, User Guide PDF …

27/08/2013 · Organizational theories also referred to as motivational theories. Organization Theories Project Human Resource Management iZenBridge Consultancy Pvt Ltd. … Missing Variables in Theories of Strategic Human Resource Management: Time, Cause, and Individuals Abstract Much progress has been made with regard to theory building and application in the field of Strategic Human Resource Management (HRM) since Wright and McMahan’s (1992) critical review. While researchers have

What is strategic human resource management? 5 Meta theories While the outline in Section 3 focuses on interpretations – that is, theories – of social, technological, economic and political change, there are other meta levels of ‘theory’ which, in a sense, sit above these interpretations of events. and functional activities of human resource management. For some time there has been a tendency of textbooks on personnel management to be much more prescriptive and practical than analytical. Human Resource Management: Theory and Practice is intended as a rigorous, but readable, coverage of

Download: Theories Of Human Development.pdf. Of Rural Development Theories Of Economic Growth And Development Classic Theories Of Economic Growth And Development Human Resource Management In Government A South African Perspective On Theories Human Resources Management In Government A South African Perspectives Of Theories, 02/01/2015В В· Human Resource Management (HRM) is the function within an organization that focuses on recruitment of, management of, and providing direction for the people who work in the organization. Human Resource Management can also be performed by line managers.

Global Journal of Human Resource Management Vol.4, No.1, pp.95-110, February 2016 HUMAN RESOURCE THEORY: FROM HAWTHORNE EXPERIMENTS OF MAYO TO GROUPTHINK OF JANIS methodology, it builds various management theories, management methods and management techniques by management practices. The relationship of them shows as the following figure: Theory of Human Resource Development (HRD) This module covers the HRD function in organizations from a wide variety of perspectives. At the outset, after the introduction to the module in the previous article, it is time to look at some theoretical perspectives about the HRD function.

13/04/2018 · Human resources managers perform key functions to help sustain business operations. They outline policies that are imperative in facilitating employer-employee relations. Their main task is to successfully motivate employees to meet a company’s financial … Five Theories in Human Resource Management 1. Frederick Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory Another researcher to enter into the fray of human motivation was Frederick Herzberg. Originally trained as a clinical psychologist, over the course of Herzberg’s career he switched focused and became one of the first researchers in the growing

28/10/2012 · Human Resource Management Human Resource Management in its simplest definition means management of organization’s manpower or workforce or human resources. Evolution of HRM The evolution of the concept of Human Resource Management is presented below Period before industrial revolution - The society was primarily an agriculture economy with limited production. management theories, the core of the paper, will be discussed at length; the . 2 human resource management, and organizational leadership. First and foremost, management is about solving problems that keep emerging all the time in the course of an organization struggling to achieve its goals and . 3

01/06/1992 · Critics have argued that the field of human resource management (HRM) lacks a coherent theoreticalframework. This article attempts to further the theoretical development of SHRM through discussing six theoretical models (behavioral perspective, cybernetic models, agencyltransaction cost theory, resource-based view of the firm, power/resource dependence models, and institutional theory) … c) Stage three (mid-1970s–late 1990s): human resource management and strategic human resource management (SHRM) stage d) Stage four (Beyond 2000): SHRM into the future These stages largely reflect the development of Human Resource Management in the rest of …

What is strategic human resource management? 5 Meta theories While the outline in Section 3 focuses on interpretations – that is, theories – of social, technological, economic and political change, there are other meta levels of ‘theory’ which, in a sense, sit above these interpretations of events. 28/10/2012 · Human Resource Management Human Resource Management in its simplest definition means management of organization’s manpower or workforce or human resources. Evolution of HRM The evolution of the concept of Human Resource Management is presented below Period before industrial revolution - The society was primarily an agriculture economy with limited production.

Missing Variables in Theories of Strategic Human Resource Management: Time, Cause, and Individuals Abstract Much progress has been made with regard to theory building and application in the field of Strategic Human Resource Management (HRM) since Wright and McMahan’s (1992) critical review. While researchers have EVOLUTION OF HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT THEORIES AND ORGANIZATIONAL SUCCESS Maryam TareshSaif Al Marri Doctor of Philosophy (Human Resource Management) Student, College of Business Management (SBM), Universiti Utara Malaysia Abdul Halim Abdul Majid School of Business Management (SBM), College of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia

Global Journal of Human Resource Management Vol.4, No.1, pp.95-110, February 2016 HUMAN RESOURCE THEORY: FROM HAWTHORNE EXPERIMENTS OF MAYO TO GROUPTHINK OF JANIS methodology, it builds various management theories, management methods and management techniques by management practices. The relationship of them shows as the following figure: 27/08/2013 · Organizational theories also referred to as motivational theories. Organization Theories Project Human Resource Management iZenBridge Consultancy Pvt Ltd. …

theories of human resource management pdf

27/11/2011 · “Great Man” Theory: Great Man theories assume that the capacity for leadership is inherent- that great leaders are born not made.These theories often portray great leaders as heroic, mythic, and destined to rise to leadership when needed. The term “Great man” was used because, at the time, leadership was through of primarily as a male quality, especially on terms of military leadership. 25/07/2017 · Orientation: This article provides an investigation into the current level of development of the body of knowledge related to electronic human resource management (e-HRM) by means of a qualitative content analysis.Several aspects of e-HRM, namely definitions of e-HRM, the theoretical perspectives around e-HRM, the role of e-HRM, the various types of e-HRM and the requirements for …